Patients who require temporary help to regulate their heartbeats can use a harmless transient pacemaker that dissolves in the body. The first pacemaker was implanted in 1958, by which millions of people have availed from the devices. As per the national audit for cardiac rhythm management, 32,902 pacemakers were set for the first time in the UK in 2018-19 alone. While some people need permanent pacemakers, others need them just for a few days or a week, just like in open-heart surgery. After a critical risk period, pacing functionality is no longer required.
To reduce the difficulty of patients healing from the cardiac operation, scientists have produced a new kind of pacemaker that is not required to be separated once it is implanted. As per the experts, if the device is terminated after use(pacemakers), the external power supply and control system can become dislodged by damaging heart tissues. Even skin infection, blood clots, wires becoming lodged in scar tissue can take place. Keeping these concerns in mind, researchers have developed a battery-free pacemaker that can be implanted directly on the surface of the heart and absorbed by the body when no longer needed.
This device can be controlled and programmed from outside of the body. The device is thin, flexible, and weighs less than half a gram from materials including magnesium, silicon, tungsten, and polymer. All of this is compatible with the body but undergoes a chemical reaction that allows them to dissolve and be absorbed over time.
The temporary pacemaker is a biocompatible material
The device, which resembles a tiny tennis racket in shape weighs less than half a gram and is 250 microns thick, is powered by wireless technology in which radio frequency power from a piece of external equipment is sent to a recipient within the pacemaker where it is transformed into an electrical flow that is used to monitor the heart. Similar technology is used in applications such as wireless charging of smartphones and electric toothbrushes.
The new device is a temporary pacemaker designed to bring a heartbeat back to normal following an injury or cardiac surgery. Typically, temporary pacemaking involves sewing electrodes onto the heart muscle wired up to an external box and that need to be removed surgically days or weeks later once a normal rhythm has been restored. The device is trailed in hearts from mice and rabbits and slices of the human souls and within live dogs and rats. The performance in dogs revealed the method could produce the power transfer needed for the device to be used in adult humans. In rats, the machine operated for four days, with scans at two weeks unveiling it had begun to melt.
At seven weeks, it was no longer noticeable on scans. The rate at which it melts can be controlled by its structure and thickness, leaving the team to deliver the exact number of days the pacemaker continues to function. Transitory pacing can be used as a connection when restoring the generator in patients with a permanent pacemaker.
The use of temporary pacing in acute myocardial infarction deserves special attention since the risk-benefit ratio is not well defined in these cases. Although the occupancy of thought indicates more important extinction in these patients, death is generally linked to the infarct measurement rather than the conduction ailment.
Complications of transient pacemaker
Complications like trauma, pneumothorax, arrhythmias, and cardiac perforation can occur while using a temporary pacemaker. SO this means that the individual has more energy and less shortness of breath. Sometimes if the pacing wire is left in situ for over 48 hours, the patient may develop septicemia. However, a pacemaker is not a cure. It is not going to stop heart failure or prevent any heart disease. It is just a support tool that can be used for a temporary period.
The risk with a temporary transient pacemaker includes infection at the surgical site, failure to deliver therapy when needed, or receiving additional treatment when not required. Also, when you get a temporary pacemaker implanted, you will have certain limitations with magnetic and electromagnetic fields, electric or gas-powered appliances, and tools. You are not allowed to be in contact with these substances. Modifying a temporary pacemaker can affect its effectiveness, and it is not safe for the patient.
Temporary transient pacemakers are very useful and necessary as they have proven to decrease mortality in patients with serve bradyarrhythmia. It is often used in elderly patients with multiple conditions and occasionally with bradyarrhythmia secondary acute myocardial infarction. The incidence of complications is very few when placing a temporary pacemaker. In an emergency, it is used for an elderly patient suffering hemodynamically unstable and uncooperative. Thus resulting in more significant morbidity and mortality.